Tuesday, June 3, 2008
Murwa is the opening poem of wayang show, in pedalangan of East Java known as pelungan; in Central Java it is known as ilahengan; and in West Java it is murwa. Below are the examples of a short murwa and long one.
Kembang sungsang binang kunang
Cahaya nira kadya gilang gumilang
Adam adam babuh lawan
Ingkang ngagelaraken cahya nur cahya
Dangiang wayang wayanganipun
Perlambang alam sadaya
Semar sana ya danar guling
Basa sem pangangen-angen
Mareng ngemaraken Dzat Kang Maha Tunggal
Wayang agung wineja wayang tunggal
The glass screen, Gusti
Wayang's obeying dalang
Dalang's ruling wayang
Its shadow is sign, Gusti
My worship is for God only
Universe creator and all its
I adore all of the great poets
To whom worship God only
The greatness of a king
Is in his wise thinking
The greatness of a state
Justice for people to get
Nyandra is a scene description by using prosy language in wayang performance. There are two kinds of nyandra: janturan and pocapan. Janturan is scene description with gamelan music; and pocapan is scene narration without gamelan music. Based on the pedalangan of West Java, Ki Harsono Siswocarito modifies a nyandra and translate it into English below.
Sinareng nira kenya pertangga, watri gumanti sang hyang latri kapundut ima-ima gambura kalawan ancala. Gambura is the beginning, ancala is the hill of mountain, si Walangtunggal the story signed by asta gangga wira tanu patra. Asta is hands, gangga is water, wira is wise man, tanu is ink, patra is words.
Words and ink are created into an alphabet of wilanjana wilanjani. Wilanjana is the alphabet of Ha, wilanjani is the alphabet of Alip. The alphabet of Alip spreading out in the West became thirty letters, Alip ba ta sa. Don't finish the alphabet of Alip, it is not the right place to concern with the alphabet of Alip. Vanishing the alphabet of Alip is existing the alphabet of Ha. The alphabet of Ha spreading out in the East, falling into the island of Java, was created into the alphabet of kalih dasa, kalih two, dasa ten, the twenty letters are divided into four trends, such as:
Ha na ca ra ka is east, da ta sa wa la is south, pa da ja ya nya is west, ma ga ba ta nga is north. Ha na ca ra ka is the governor, da ta sa wa la is the ordered, pa da ja ya nya is the bad heart, ma ga ba ta nga can not be said. The alphabet has died in the north.
Vanishing the twenty alphabet, exists again the alphabet, wulanjana wulanjani. Wulanjana ia desire of father, wulanjani is desire of mother. The desire of father falls into the desire of mother, goes into kenya puri. Kenya is woman, puri is a palace.
Which palace is going to be the opening? The…… palace is used as the beginning. Basically the state is panjang punjung pasir wukir loh jinawi. Panjang is told by people, punjung is highly distinguished, pasir is ocean, wukir is mountain, loh jinawi is very welthy, not lack of clothes and food, and diamonds.
Who becomes the king? The king sits in the ivory throne of gilang kencana crowned by binokasri jewelry, wearing gelung gono, gelung gongsor, kelat bahu kempal dada, strapping on his keris of Kyai Jagapati, pendok carved by coriander motif, its amar-amaran yellow silk, white silk, black silk, red silk, dodot gresik wayang.
One playing dalang is dora sembada, dora is lie, sembada is fit. What cause becomes fit? There is a fact. What fact? There is wayang purwa. Wayang is shadow, purwa is the beginning. Onlu following an ancient plot, following old traces, old man began, young man just does.
But the difference is that the ancient wayang has been changed into wayang golek. What is the meaning of golek, disenggol or touched until dead lying, and its eyes still opening. However, the word golek according to Javanese is to look for. Looking for what, looking for its origin, because golek is not different from man. Hush dangerous golek is made similar to man. Is not golek made of wood, carved, painted, becoming a doll. Why can the doll speak alone and live? Golek is moved without move, gesture without gesture, because golek is spoken by dalang. Do not feel to be a dalang, only feeling to play wayang, to play dalang. Playing of what? Playing of wooden puppets, you see, audience need entertaining, better than sleeping in the evening.
Mountain without valley there is not a black monkey. The Long tale is made short, the short is cut, sebat kang genjotan.
MERCUKUNDA, SURALAYA—Sang Hyang Pramesti Guru Jagatnata is Sang Hyang Otipati, the king of Jagat Triloka, sitting on the throne of Kursi Gading Gilang Kencana, visited by divas, bataras, sanghyangs, gods, goddess, all citizens of Sorgaloka.
ASTINA—The leaders of Kurawa together with General Baladewa, the President of Mandura, discusses national catastrophe.
Pocapan is scene narration without gamelan music to tell its event. Below is an example of pocapan in Jaya Renyuan performed by dalang Dede Amung Sutarya:
Padmanegara nyandak dua hulusapu bade dicipta ku Kresna. Atuh Kresna rep sidakep ana sinuku tunggal babakane caturdriya--catur papat, driya angen-angen, sir budi cipta kalawan rasa. Pangambung teu diangge ngangse; soca teu diangge ningal; cepil teu diangge ngarungu; baham teu diangge ngucap lir ibarat anu paeh ngadeg, nanging bentena pedah ngangge ambegan.
All divas are prepared
To attack Triloka's foes!
The giants attack cruelly!
The giants fight angrily!
Suluk is the poems sung by dalang in wayang show. Below are the examples of suluk from the pedalangan of West Java.
Saur nira tandana panjang
Sinenggih sabda ya uninga lawan
Sabda ya uninga lawan
Sauri nira tandana panjang sinengih
Sabda uninga wis mama
Ulun layu dening sekti ala bakti dening asih
Ya ding asih
Wong asih ora katara
Standby sang Dursasana
Troop commander of Astina!
Kurawa attack the campus
The students deadly push
Antawacana is a dialogue between wayang figures, and a dialogue between wayang figure and nayaga (musicians), wirasuara (man singer), or jurukawih (woman singer) is called aside. Antawacana is presented after pocapan. Below is an example of dialogue in Jaya Renyuan garapan performed by dalang Dede Amung Sutarya:
KRESNA: Eladalah, Yayi, Yayi Setiaki.
SETIAKI: Kaula nun.
KRESNA: Kakang Patih Udawa.
UDAWA: Lo, lo, lo, Hahahah… pun kakang Patih Udawa.
KRESNA: Marajeng ka payun calikna.
BIMA: Our distinguished professors! Are you regret the action of Kurawa's troops?
KANETRA: Of course! But, I regard such an action is funny clown. And we could defend ourselves.
PULASIA: Huahaha… right! The attack's no significance for biomacrobot, my robotic engineering.
ESTIBANDA: And my future monsterobot could destroy the troops.
MANINGRAT: Bastard Kurawa! Such a snob Wayang's dare to show off. Overacting! Khhk-phew!
MARUTA: They should be educated, Prof! Make them nyaho!
BARUNA: All right! They think sciences only exist in Sokalima State University, technology only exists in Talkanda University? So proud!
BIMA: Great! The military action of Astina should be executed. Prepare the troops of biomacrobot and monsterobot to attack Astina.
PULASIA: Yes, Sir!
Sabetan is the body language of wayang including dancing, acting, and fighting. Dancing is the gesture of wayang accompanied by song and gamelan music. Acting is the gesture of wayang only accompanied with kecrek or kendang. Fighting is the gesture of wayang in war accompanied with gamelan music or only with kecrek or kendang. In lakonet, sabetan is presented by scene action.
RIMBAMALA.—Mintaraga is battling with the troops of Manimantaka.
“S-stop! W-who are u?”
“Gong, let's beat em!”
“Great!”—(Thwack! Clunk!) Falling-surrendering (Crash! Boom!)—“Feel this! Whoosh!”—(Clunk! Boom!)—“O-o-ouch!”
“Phew! Bastards! Kaladurga, Kaladurjana, Kaladuraksa, Kaladurmala, Kalastuwila, Kala-daksa, Kaladarba, Kalagarba, Kaladuskerta, Kaladusta, Kaladursila—attack!”
“Reng, let's attack em with grenades!” +
Suara is voices, sounds, and onomatopoeia to complete sabetan, especially fighting. Below is an example of suara from a lakonet (lakon or drama in Internet) by Ki Harsono Siswocarito.
“Nurkala Kalimantra! Fight me Batara Wisnu!”
“Who? Wisnu? March—where is the champion of divas? Grrrk-phew! Look, are you sleeping? O facing downward! What are you doing, Wisnu?”
”No mal-question! Feel this missile of Cakra—you die!”—(Whoosh! Clap!)
(Krep!)—“Huahaha… such a missile does not wrok!”—(Blep! Ccss!)
“Crazy! Useless, Wisnu!”
“Ouch, damn it—”
“Run! Run! Run!”
Tembang is song sung by pesinden (woman singer), wirasuara (man singer), or dalang. The opening song of wayang show is sung by woman singer. Song along with wayang show is sung by woman and man singer. Songs in Limbukan and Gara-gara are sung by dalang duet with woman singer or guest stars. Below is an example of the opening song from the pedalangan of West Java:
Nu aya di pilemburan
Wilujeng patepang dangu
Ti abdi saparakanca
Ti abdi saparakanca
Gamelan Munggul Pawenang
Nyanggakeun hiburanana, Juragan
La mugiya janten panglipur
Pangbeberah duh kana manah
Gandasari buah ati
Pujaan urang sadaya
Buku pinuh kupapaes
Alus jadi patamanan
Yu yus tu bi mai parti dol
Bat now yu sey de parti’s oper
The original lyric is:
You used to be my party doll
But now you say the party's over
Mantra, magic poem in pedalangan, consists of two categories. First, mantra recited by dalang before performing wayang show. Second, mantra recited by a figure of wayang to show its power. The first example is the mantra of opening performance from Mpu Tan Akung:
Ingsun Angidhepa Sang Hyang Guru Reka,
Kamatantra: swaranku manikastagina.
The second one is mantra penyirepan recited by Indrajit to make other characters sleep:
Rep sirep si Megananda
Wong sarewu padha tumut
Salaksa wong serah nyawa
The story of lakonet derives from wayang stories. Wayang stories can be classified into pakem, carangan, gubahan, and sempalan stories. The pakem stories derive from Mahabarata, Ramayana, Serat Paramayoga, Serat Pustaka Rajapurwa, Serat Purwakandha, etc. Carangan stories are the modified versions of pakem stories. Gubahan stories are the adapted versions. Sempalan stories are the new creative versions of wayang stories.
Pedalangan literature is very plural and has many genres. This case indicates that the plurality of Indonesian pedalangan has many kinds of styles, such as pedalangan styles of West Java, Centra Java, East Java, Bali, Lombok, Banjar, and etc.
Lakonet is a postmodern genre of wayang that uses Internet as its medium of performance and publication. (Semarang, December 26, 2007. Ki Harsono Siswocarito)
The purpose of the writing is to achieve the historical, functional, and the aesthetic aspects of Gambang Semarang and to inventory the elements of Semarang art and culture which can be used as the supports of the development of Gambang Semarang art. To look into the several aspects investigated, this research uses historical method, oral historical method, and anthropological method by applying the technique of observation, interview, and library research.
Gambang Semarang is an art which has a strong historical root in Semarang city. Although there is a fact saying that Gambang Semarang is derived from Gambang Kromong, in Semarang city there has been existing the forms of art similar to Gambang Kromong such as pat-iem, yan kim, and may be the gambang orchestra that is supported by the Chinese society. Thus, the effort to create a unique art of Semarang by importing a set of Gambang Kromong instruments, trainers, and organizing a art group is not without reason, but may be based on a historical consideration. The historical root of Gambang Semarang is strengthen by the fact that in the historical development, the art is supported by Semarang society, not only from Chinese community but also from native community.
By looking into its historical development, Gambang Semarang has the functions as entertainment and performance. As an entertainment, Gambang Semarang is expressed by someone for the interest of the fulfilment of the private satisfaction; and as a performance, the art is a communal supported performing art. Besides the both functions, in Gambang Semarang there is a social function as the medium of the social integration between the Chinese ethnic and the natives.
Although Gambang Semarang is derived from Gambang Kromong, this art has the aesthetic concepts and the certain order of performance which are different to the other arts, and also become its characteristics.
In the beginning Gambang Semarang has the same musical characteristics with Gambang Kromong, but in the development the characteristics are wither by showing the particular songs of Gambang Semarang, the folksongs from Central Java, the songs of Keroncong, and the Javanese popular songs. If in the beginning of its development in Gambang Semarang there are Betawian and Chinese nuances, and Javanese-Mandarin nuances, nowadays Gambang Semarang performs its Javanese nuances more and more.
The dance of Gambang Semarang has three variations of gestures such as ngondhek, ngeyek, and genjot, and all of the gestures are focused on the hip. The hand gesture (lembeyan) accompanied all of the gesture above is a gesture focused on the wrist with the medium gesture from navel up to eyesight. Meanwhile, the comedy of Gambang Semarang has three comical forms such as verbal comedy, non-verbal comedy, and musical comedy.
Based on the research of folklore, the elements of Semarang art and culture which can be used as the supports of the development of Gambang Semarang are (1) The Javanese dialect of Semarang, (2) the legends of Semarang, (3) the play songs and macapat of Semarang, (4) the traditional clothes of Semarang, and (5) the karawitan music of Semarang.
Gambang Semarang, as an art having a strong historical root, aesthetic concepts, and a certain order of performance which are different to the other arts, is necessary to maintain and to develop; and even it can be an identity of Semarang city in the field of art. In order to make them all come true, it will not be exaggerated if the art of Gambang Semarang needs a good handling and creating a composition model of Gambang Semarang as a cultural identity of Semarang.